Part 8: Deferred Poetry
Now that we have know something about deferreds, we can rewrite our Twisted poetry client to use them. You can find client 4.0 in twisted-client-4/get-poetry.py.
get_poetry function no longer needs
errback arguments. Instead, it returns a new deferred to which the user may attach callbacks and errbacks as needed.
def get_poetry(host, port): """ Download a poem from the given host and port. This function returns a Deferred which will be fired with the complete text of the poem or a Failure if the poem could not be downloaded. """ d = defer.Deferred() from twisted.internet import reactor factory = PoetryClientFactory(d) reactor.connectTCP(host, port, factory) return d
Our factory object is initialized with a deferred instead of a callback/errback pair. Once we have the poem, or we find out we couldn’t connect to the server, the deferred is fired with either a poem or a failure:
class PoetryClientFactory(ClientFactory): protocol = PoetryProtocol def __init__(self, deferred): self.deferred = deferred def poem_finished(self, poem): if self.deferred is not None: d, self.deferred = self.deferred, None d.callback(poem) def clientConnectionFailed(self, connector, reason): if self.deferred is not None: d, self.deferred = self.deferred, None d.errback(reason)
Notice the way we release our reference to the deferred after it is fired. This is a pattern found in several places in the Twisted source code and helps to ensure we do not fire the same deferred twice. It makes life a little easier for the Python garbage collector, too.
def poetry_main(): addresses = parse_args() from twisted.internet import reactor poems =  errors =  def got_poem(poem): poems.append(poem) def poem_failed(err): print >>sys.stderr, 'Poem failed:', err errors.append(err) def poem_done(_): if len(poems) + len(errors) == len(addresses): reactor.stop() for address in addresses: host, port = address d = get_poetry(host, port) d.addCallbacks(got_poem, poem_failed) d.addBoth(poem_done) reactor.run() for poem in poems: print poem
Notice how we take advantage of the chaining capabilities of the deferred to refactor the
poem_done invocation out of our primary callback and errback.
Because deferreds are used so much in Twisted code, it’s common practice to use the single-letter local variable
d to hold the deferred you are currently working on. For longer term storage, like object attributes, the name “
deferred” is often used.
With our new client the asynchronous version of
get_poetry accepts the same information as our synchronous version, just the address of the poetry server. The synchronous version returns a poem, while the asynchronous version returns a deferred. Returning a deferred is typical of the asynchronous APIs in Twisted and programs written with Twisted, and this points to another way of conceptualizing deferreds:
Deferredobject represents an “asynchronous result” or a “result that has not yet come”.
We can contrast these two styles of programming in Figure 13:
By returning a deferred, an asynchronous API is giving this message to the user:
I’m an asynchronous function. Whatever you want me to do might not be done yet. But when it is done, I’ll fire the callback chain of this deferred with the result. On the other hand, if something goes wrong, I’ll fire the errback chain of this deferred instead.
Of course, that function itself won’t literally fire the deferred, it has already returned. Rather, the function has set in motion a chain of events that will eventually result in the deferred being fired.
So deferreds are a way of “time-shifting” the results of functions to accommodate the needs of the asynchronous model. And a deferred returned by a function is a notice that the function is asynchronous, the embodiment of the future result, and a promise that the result will be delivered.
It is possible for a synchronous function to return a deferred, so technically a deferred return value means the function is potentially asynchronous. We’ll see examples of synchronous functions returning deferreds in future Parts.
Because the behavior of deferreds is well-defined and well-known (to folks with some experience programming with Twisted), by returning deferreds from your own APIs you are making it easier for other Twisted programmers to understand and use your code. Without deferreds, each Twisted program, or even each internal Twisted component, might have its own unique method for managing callbacks that you would have to learn in order to use it.
When You’re Using Deferreds, You’re Still Using Callbacks, and They’re Still Invoked by the Reactor
When first learning Twisted, it is a common mistake to attribute more functionality to deferreds than they actually have. Specifically, it is often assumed that adding a function to a deferred’s chain automatically makes that function asynchronous. This might lead you to think you could use, say,
os.system with Twisted by adding it to a deferred with
I think this mistake is caused by trying to learn Twisted without first learning the asynchronous model. Since typical Twisted code uses lots of deferreds and only occasionally refers to the reactor, it can appear that deferreds are doing all the work. If you have read this introduction from the beginning, it should be clear this is far from the case. Although Twisted is composed of many parts that work together, the primary responsibility for implementing the asynchronous model falls to the reactor. Deferreds are a useful abstraction, but we wrote several versions of our Twisted client without using them in any way.
Let’s look at a stack trace at the point when our first callback is invoked. Run the example program in twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py with the address of a running poetry server. You should get some output like this:
File "twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py", line 129, in poetry_main() File "twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py", line 122, in poetry_main reactor.run() ... # some more Twisted function calls protocol.connectionLost(reason) File "twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py", line 59, in connectionLost self.poemReceived(self.poem) File "twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py", line 62, in poemReceived self.factory.poem_finished(poem) File "twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py", line 75, in poem_finished d.callback(poem) # here's where we fire the deferred ... # some more methods on Deferreds File "twisted-client-4/get-poetry-stack.py", line 105, in got_poem traceback.print_stack()
That’s pretty similar to the stack trace we created for client 2.0. We can visualize the latest trace in Figure 14:
Again, this is similar to our previous Twisted clients, though the visual representation is starting to become vaguely disturbing. We probably won’t be showing any more of these, for the sake of the children. One wrinkle not reflected in the figure: the callback chain above doesn’t return control to the reactor until the second callback in the deferred (
poem_done) is invoked, which happens right after the first callback (
There’s one more difference with our new stack trace. The line separating “Twisted code” from “our code” is a little fuzzier, since the methods on deferreds are really Twisted code. This interleaving of Twisted and user code in a callback chain is common in larger Twisted programs which make extensive use of other Twisted abstractions.
By using a deferred we’ve added a few more steps in the callback chain that starts in the Twisted reactor, but we haven’t changed the fundamental mechanics of the asynchronous model. Recall these facts about callback programming:
- Only one callback runs at a time.
- When the reactor is running our callbacks are not.
- And vice-versa.
- If our callback blocks then the whole program blocks.
Attaching a callback to a deferred doesn’t change these facts in any way. In particular, a callback that blocks will still block if it’s attached to a deferred. So that deferred will block when it is fired (
d.callback), and thus Twisted will block. And we conclude:
Deferreds are a solution (a particular one invented by the Twisted developers) to the problem of managing callbacks. They are neither a way of avoiding callbacks nor a way to turn blocking callbacks into non-blocking callbacks.
We can confirm the last point by constructing a deferred with a blocking callback. Consider the example code in twisted-deferred/defer-block.py. The second callback blocks using the
time.sleep function. If you run that script and examine the order of the
By returning a
Deferred, a function tells the user “I’m asynchronous” and provides a mechanism (add your callbacks and errbacks here!) to obtain the asynchronous result when it arrives. Deferreds are used extensively throughout the Twisted codebase and as you explore Twisted’s APIs you are bound to keep encountering them. So it will pay to become familiar with deferreds and comfortable in their use.
Client 4.0 is the first version of our Twisted poetry client that’s truly written in the “Twisted style”, using a deferred as the return value of an asynchronous function call. There are a few more Twisted APIs we could use to make it a little cleaner, but I think it represents a pretty good example of how simple Twisted programs are written, at least on the client side. Eventually we’ll re-write our poetry server using Twisted, too.
But we’re not quite finished with deferreds. For a relatively short piece of code, the
Deferred class provides a surprising number of features. We’ll talk about some more of those features, and their motivation, in Part 9.
- Update client 4.0 to timeout if the poem isn’t received after a given period of time. Fire the deferred’s errback with a custom exception in that case. Don’t forget to close the connection when you do.
- Update client 4.0 to print out the appropriate server address when a poem download fails, so the user can tell which server is the culprit. Don’t forget you can add extra positional- and keyword-arguments when you attach callbacks and errbacks.